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store current values of various machine

store current values of various machine settings (current machine status) A very important part of macros is their ability to use con –


di tional test metal cutting shears ing, branch ing and loop ing for a very flex i ble pro gram flow The use of looping


fea tures alone, so called it er a tion, adds much de sired ex tra pro gram ming power Over all, these


are the three items that are the most sig nif i cant in pro gram ming mac ros:


o


Variable data input


o


Mathematical functions and calculations


o


Storage and retrieval of current machine values


Unique Features


Macros have their own unique fea tures, not found in nor mal subprograms or, for that mat ter, in


any other con ven tional method of part pro gram ming


Typ i cal fea tures that are clas si fied as unique to mac ros are mostly re lated to flex i bil ity:


Boring Machine


Program data can be changed


o


Program flow can be altered


o


Data can be passed from one program to another


o


Repetitions metal cutting shears can be looped


o


Measurement (probing) can be incorporated


o


Special equipment can be fully controlled


These are only some items that dis tin guish the ma jor dif fer ences be tween subprograms and cus –


tom mac ros Do not think of mac ros just as a better re place ment for subprograms There are many


uses of mac ros that can not be com pared with any thing sim i lar to subprograms The main – and


most unique – fea tures of typ i cal mac ros are their flex i bil ity and ease of use, once you mas ter the


ba sic is sues as so ci ated with macro de vel op ment


Copyright 2005, Industrial Press Inc, New York, NY – wwwindustrialpresscom


FANUC CNC Custom Macros


REVIEW OF SUBPROGRAMS


31


Un like subprograms, mac ros in clude many spe cial func tions that can be found on a typ i cal sci –


en tific cal cu la tor (TAN, COS, SIN, SQRT, etc) Not only sim ple or more com plex al ge braic


func tions can be used, mac ros can also be ap plied for trig o no met ric cal cu la tions, square roots,


pow ers of a num ber x2 Marking on Metals or x3, in verse func tions, nested pa ren the ses, round

though you may develop a very

though you may develop a very


so phis ti cated copper busbar bending machine pro gram flow, but you may also be the only one who un der stands it


Subprograms that use the three or four-level nest ing are very rare in practice By care ful plan –


ning, the de sign of a con trol sys tem must al ways be a step ahead of the de sign of ma chine tools


For ex am ple, a 250 000 rev/min spin dle speed may not be avail able on ma chine tools at this time,


but the con trol sys tem can still sup port it, in case a par tic u lar man u fac turer co mes for ward with


ex actly that kind of a spin dle Four-level nest ing has been de signed for the same rea son The three


lev els of subprogram nest ing are il lus trated as sche matic graphics (Fig ures 5 to 7):


START


Figure 5


Two-level subprogram


O0001


O1001


O1002


nesting


Boring Machine hole


(MAIN)


(SUB)


(SUB)


M98P1001


M98P1002


M30


%


M99


M99


%


%


END


Copyright punch equipment 2005, Industrial Press Inc, New York, NY – wwwindustrialpresscom


FANUC CNC Custom Macros


REVIEW OF SUBPROGRAMS


29


START


Figure 6


Three-level subprogram


O0001


O1001


O1002


O1003


nesting


(MAIN)


(SUB)


(SUB)


(SUB)


M98P1001


M98P1003


M98P1002


M30


M99


%


M99


%


M99


%


%


END


START


Figure 7


Four-level subprogram


O0001


O1001


O1002


O1003


O1004


nesting


(MAIN)


(SUB)


(SUB)


(SUB)


(SUB)


M98P1003


M98P1001


M98P1004


M98P1002


M30


M99


%


M99


M99


%


M99


%


%


%


END


Subprogram Documentation


Any com plex part pro gram (subprograms and mac ros in cluded) should al ways be well doc u –


mented Doc u ment ing CNC pro copper bending machine grams has been largely ig nored by many us ers, of ten be cause of


the per ceived need to do a job fast Al though some what for giv able for sim ple and easy pro grams,


the prac tice of not doc u ment ing pro grams is def i nitely not ac cept able for subprograms and is also


not ac cept able for mac ros Good pro gram doc u men ta tion is the key part of any CNC pro gram de –


vel op ment Look at the sche matic drawings of the four lev els of subprogram nest ing and you will


see how com plex the pro gram can be

each in creas ing level of nesting A good documen tation

come with each in creas ing level of nesting A good documen tation will help the user in orientation and program ‘decoding’, there fore be comes cnc bending machine manufacturers a man da –


tory part of the pro gram ming pro cess


For both, the subprograms and mac ros, the pro gram doc u men ta tion should be in ter nal as much


as pos si ble This can be achieved by in clud ing im por tant com ments in the pro gram body (main


pro gram, subprogram, or a macro) Pro gram com ments are typ i cally en closed in pa ren the ses, for


ex am ple, as (DRILLING HOLE NUMBER 5) Pro vide only those com ments that are rel e vant


Copyright 2005, Industrial Press Inc, New York, NY – wwwindustrialpresscom


FANUC CNC Custom Macros


30


Chapter 3


Subprograms vs Macros


cnc drilling Machine


One main pur pose of this hand book is to em pha size the cus tom macro op tion of Fanuc con trols


Since the pro gram de vel op ment of subprograms is crit i cal as the ba sic knowl edge for macro de –


vel op ment, this chap ter has so far re viewed the ba sic con cepts of subprograms, their struc ture metal cutting shears and


their ap pli ca tions in a typ i cal CNC pro gram


In the terms of pur pose, cus tom mac ros are di rect ex ten sions of subprograms or sim i lar sub rou –


tines They are treated vir tu ally the same way as subprograms – they are nor mally stored un der a


sep a rate pro gram num ber (O—- or O—–), and they al ways end the same way, us ing the


M99 func tion Mac ros are called in a sim i lar way, us ing the G65 pre pa ra tory com mand, along


with the spec i fied pa ram e ters


A typ i cal CNC pro gram can mix both, the con ven tional method of pro gram ming (with or with –


out subprograms) and mac ros – or use at least some macro fea tures Of copper bending machine course, the con trol sys tem


must sup port the macro op tion


The ma jor dif fer ence be tween the two unique pro gram ming meth ods is the flex i bil ity mac ros


of fer Un like subprograms, mac ros can be used with vari able data (us ing the so called vari ables),


they can per form many math e mat i cal op er a tions and they can

CNC pro gramming to the levels never before possible

 values, using many other features (just like the calcula tor functions) Specific constants, such as the pifunction (p =


3141592654), are not avail able, but can angle bender be de fined Cal cu lated val ues can be stored into a


mem ory reg is ter and used in the cur rent pro gram, or any other pro gram


There is no doubt that macros can elevate CNC pro gramming to the levels never before possible


with only main pro grams or subprograms alone Knowledge of subprograms, how they work,


how they are struc tured and how they in ter act with main pro gram, is the key knowl edge re quired


for any pro gram mer try ing to un ravel the mys tery of cus tom mac ros


CNC Lathe Ap pli ca tions


Mac ros are use ful for any type of a ma chine tool Al punch equipment though ma chin ing cen ters (used so far as il –


lus tra tive ex am ples) have be come the most likely sources of macro pro grams, that does not mean


other ma chine tools are ex cluded The one ma chine tool that is widely used in ev ery day pro duc –


tion, the one ma chine tool that will ben e fit from cus tom mac ros is – the CNC lathe


In Fig ure 8 shows a draw ing of a lathe part with three iden ti cal grooves


29


Figure 8


21


13


cnc Boring Machine


2X 05×45


Sample drawing for


subprogram example


– lathe application


3


5


4


0


10


7


8





4


GROOVE DETAIL


37


48


Groove de tail shows a 4x3x05 mm groove Al though all three grooves are lo cated at the same


di am e ter, it is quite likely that this groove – or any stan dard groove – can still have the same over –


all di men sions but be placed at dif fer ent di am e ters Whether de vel op ing a subprogram or a macro,


this is a very im por tant con sid er ation While grooves that do not change di am e ters can be pro –


grammed in ab so lute mode along the X-axis and in cre men tal mode along the hydraulic busbar bending Z-axis, grooves that


will be at var i ous di am e ters have to be pro grammed incrementally along both axes


Copyright 2005, Industrial Press Inc, New York, NY – wwwindustrialpresscom


FANUC CNC Custom Macros

a subprogram is to call it only once and pro cess it only once

 subprogram is to call it only once and pro cess it only once


Af ter that, the pro gram of or i gin (usu ally the main pro gram) con tin ues nor mally Al cnc bending machine manufacturers though sev –


eral subprogram calls can be made from the main straightening press pro gram, once the subprogram is com pleted,


the pro cess ing con tin ues in the main pro gram This is called a sin gle level nest ing, and is also the


most com mon ap pli ca tion of subprograms


Fanuc con trols al low for up to four lev els of subprogram nest ing (also called four lev els fold)


Nest ing means that one subprogram may call an other subprogram, which may call still an other


subprogram, up to four lev els deep As the num ber of call ing lev els in crease, the pro gram ming


be comes in creas ingly more com plex as well and can be quite dif fi cult to de velop It is very un –


usual to pro gram more than two lev els deep nest ing In all cases, there is one im por tant rule in


pro gram ming to observe:


In a nested program environment, a subprogram


will always return to the program it originated band saw machine from


CNC Drilling Boring Machine


Copyright 2005, Industrial Press Inc, New York, NY – wwwindustrialpresscom


FANUC CNC Custom Macros


28


Chapter 3


The pro gram of or i gin may be the main pro gram or an other subprogram All four il lus tra tions


that follow show a graph i cal pro gram flow for the four lev els of subprogram nest ing:


START


Figure 4


Single level of a subprogram


O0001


O1001


nesting


(MAIN)


(SUB)


M98P1001


M30


%


M99


%


END


The il lus tra tion in Fig ure 4 shows a gen eral sche matic rep re sen ta tion of the pre vi ous ex am ple –


a sin gle level of a subprogram nest ing This is the most com mon ap pli ca tion of subprograms


More com plex (multi-level) subprogram nest ing brings an ex tra power to the CNC pro gram –


ming process, but at the price of more time re quired for de vel op ment, as well as some clar ity and


con ve nience built into the program That is not to say the multi-level subprogram nest ing should


be dis cour aged or even avoided al to gether It sim ply means that al

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